Rituals of Lord Jagannath
Various rituals performed on a daily basis form a part and parcel of the Lord Jagannath . These are described in detail below:
DWARPHITA & MANGAL ALATI at 5 A.M. (Opening of the door and morning prayer)
The door opens early in the morning in the presence of the five specific sevayats after verification of the "seal" given by a particular sevayat in the previous night. Soon after the opening of the door, sacred lamps is offered to the deities which is called "Mangal Alati".
MAILAM AT 6 A.M.
"Mailam" is a word used in Shri Jagannath Temple, which means change or removal of dresses and flowers etc. At this time some specific sevaks change the clothes, flowers, Tulasi leaves of the deities worn on the previous night. After the removal of colthes,the clothes known as "Tadap"and "Uttariya"are worn by the deities.
ABAKASH - 6 A.M. TO 6.30 A.M.
Purificatory rites like brushing of teeth and bath is known as "Abakash ". At this time Temple Jyotisha ( Astrologer ) reads out the tithi and other astrological details of the day and according to that, that very days rituals are performed.
MAILAM 6.45 A.M.
At this time deities change their clothes ( Tadap & Uttariya ) and wear another set of clothes. A sevak known as "Akhanda Mekap " keeps in the sanctum Akhanda Baitha i.e. one lamp which burns till " Pahuda " or at the time of the retirement of the deities to bed.
SAHANAMELA - 7A.M. TO 8 A.M.
Though this is not a part of the rituals, but about one hour is spent to facilitate pilgrims to go up to "Ratnavedi " or inner sanctums to have a Darshan, without paying fees for it. On certain festive days, Sahanamela is held after " Sandhya dhupa " (Evening Puja or Sandhya Alati in the month of Kartik) and after Sakaldhupa ( in the month of Pausha ). Some times this darshan is not allowed for some special rituals of the deities.
BESHALAGI- 8 A.M.
After Sahanamela the deities are again dressed up which can be witnessed from a little distance i.e." Bhitara Katha ". At this time, Deities are also adorned with gold and precious stones to suit different festive occasions.
ROSHA HOMA, SURYA PUJA, AND DWARAPAL PUJA - 8 A.M. to 8.30 A.M.
While some sevayats are busy with vesha lagi of the Deities, Pujapandas at that time perform " Rosha Homa "( Fire Sacrifice ) at the kitchen and " Surya puja " at the surya temple near "Mukti Mandap ". Then the images of two gate keepers named Jaya and Vijaya on the entrance of the Jagamohan of the Temple are worshipped.
GOPALA BALLAVA PUJA - 9 A.M. (Breakfast of the God)
The prescribed time is 9 A.M. This is the time for breakfast of the deities. At this time sweet popcorn (Khei ), Khualadus, Coconuts sweets (Kora), Ripe banana, Curd, and chipped coconuts etc. are offered as bhogas. Puja is performed in a brief manner with pancha upachar only.
SAKALA DHUPA (MORNING FOOD OFFERING) 10 A.M.
At this time puja is performed by three Pujapandas with 16 Upachars or Sodasha Upachars. Three Pujapandas used to sit on Ratnasinhasana to worship three deities Shri Balabhadra,Subhadra, and Lord Jagannath. The Pujapanda who worships Lord Jagannath also worships Sri Devi, Bhudevi,and Sudarshan. The morning bhoga or food offered to the deities contains Rice, Kanika, Khechudi, Green leaves, Cakes etc.. The local names of the Bhog are Pitha Puli,Hansakeli, Kanti, Enduri ,Matha Puli, Kakatua Jhili, Bundia, Kadali Bhaja, Ada Pachedi (ginger tonic ) etc.. The cost of the dhoop Pujas and Ballavs are borne by the Temple Administration.Previously Raja-Superintendent of the temple born the cost of materials for preparation of Bhoga. So these Bhogas are also called "Raja Bhoga "or "Kotha Bhoga".
MAILAM & BHOGA MANDAP : 11 A.M.
After Morning Dhupa or Puja the Deities change their Cloth " and again Puja takes places in "Bhoga Mandap ",a place behind the Garuda pillar of Jagamohan. Huge quantity of Bhogas such as Rice ,Dal,Curries,Saga and Cakes of different kinds etc.are offered to the Deities. Pujapandas worship this bhog with Pancha Upachars. The cost of Bhoga Mandap offerings are not borne by the state or Temple Administration. This bhoga is mainly prepared to meet the need of different Mathas ( Monasteries ) and for sale to the general public. According to the demand, Bhogamandap Puja is made twice or thrice a day i.e. after " Madhyanha Dhoop" and "Sandhya Dhup " also.
MADHYANHA DHUPA (Afternoon food offering ) 11A.M. to 1 P.M.
Like Sakal Dhupa, this puja is also performed with Sodasa Upachar in the afternoon. The Bhoga items are more in number than that of Morning Dhupa. One can go near to the " Ratna Singhasan" for darshan by paying special Darshan fee @ Rs 25 /- after Madhynha Dhupa & Sakal Dhupa.
MADHYANHA PAHUDHA 1 P.M. to 1.30 P.M.
If rituals have been performed in time and if time permits, the Deities retire for the afternoon.