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Textile industries in Orissa

One of the oldest industries of the state, textiles in general and handlooms in particular rank amongst the most exported commodities from the state. The Handloom Industry in Orissa is famous for its excellent artistic and superior craftsmanship. Handloom items of Orissa have the following specialties.

  • Tie and Dye method of color combination
  • Unique design and superior quality
  • Tassar Fabrics of indigeneous silk special to Orissa and Chotnagpur plateau

Orissa comes only next to Bihar in the production of Tassar variety of silk producing around 10 tones of silk a year. This variety of silk is mostly manufactured in old Mayurbhanj, Sundergarh, Kendujhar, Sambalpur and Koraput district.Tasar Silk worms are reared for this purpose. The Tassar worms thrive mostly on the shorea robusta (sal), Terminalia arjuna and Terminalia tomentosa. All these trees are found in abundance in the forests of Orissa. Sericulture which started in Orissa 1926 in Cuttack, Puri and Ganjam districts gradually spread to sundergarh, phulabani and Koraput districts. Mulberry silk is much less important compared to Tassar and Eri in Orissa. Since1981, the Bivoltive Sericulture Development project has been taken up by the state Government. It covers areas in R.Udayagiri and Mohana blocks and in old Koraput, Ganjan, phulabani, Kalahandi, Cuttack, Puri, samblapur and Kendujhar districts.

Apart from the tassar silk, modern textile industry that is less labor intensive function in different parts of the state.A textile mill was established at Chaudwar in 1949 with a capacity of 50,000 spindles and 864 looms. This mill is market based. It gets its supplies of raw cotton from the cotton belt located in the Western Peninsula. Six cotton spinning mills are also operating at Jharsuguda, Bargarh, Khorda, Tistol, Athyarh, Tora and Govindapur mostly in the co-operative sector. Other small weaving and spinning mills are operating at Sambalpur, Baripada.

Sugar Mills in Orissa

A sugar mill was started in Orissa on the eve of the second world war, at Aska. All sugar factory are raw material oriented. The sugar factory at Aska is the oldest in the state. At the end of the seventh plan, three sugar factories were operational at Aska, Bargarh and Rayagada. Two more factories are being set up at Nayagarh, in Nayagarh districts and Badamba in Cuttack. Besides, some other Sugar mills were started at Dharmagarh in old Kalahandi district, Haripur in Dhenkamal district, Nabarangapur in Nabarangpur district, Deogaon in Balangir district and Anandapur in Kendujhar district.

Marine Products of Orissa

There are 559 marine fishermen villages with a population of 1,73,197 who depend on the marine resources for their livelihood. There are 64 fish landing centers, which include 4 Fishing Harbours and 16 Jetties. At present Orissa has 23 exporters who process the marine produce in 19 modern processing plants spread throughout the coastal districts of Orissa. Out of these 19 processing plants, 5 are European approved standard and few of them are highly International standard to meet the requirement of the International market.

The total capacity of production of the plants are 342 MT per day. However the average utilisation capacity of the plants is only 11%. The total contribution of sea food production of Orissa in the basket of India sea food export is 8% in terms of quantity and 5% in terms of value. In 2002-03 which has been reduced to 4% in terms of value and 3% in terms of quantity. In the year 2004-05, 11% utilisation capacity of our processing factories is mainly due to decline of oceanic catch un-utilisation of vast coastal land for aquaculture and inadequate infrastructure. During 2004-05, Orissa produced 121.93 thousand tones of marine fishes from all the landing centres. Out of which only 65.24 thousand tonnes are sold to other states and other countries . A sizeable quantity of marine dry fishes are exported to Calcutta. Marine products landed in coastal districts of Orissa are exported to Japan, U.K., U.S.A., Belgium, Netherlands, Germany, China, Singapore, Hong Kong, Thailand and Spain.

Rice Mills in Orissa

Rice mill are an important agro-based industry in Orissa. There is a large cluster of rice mills present all over the state.The coastal district of Balesahwar, Cuttack and Sambalpur have many rice mills.However leading the state with the maximum number of rice mills is the district of Koraput. Besides, a large number of rice hullers are operating in rural collecting centres all over Orissa.

Small Scale Industries in Orissa

Among the other industries beverages, tobacco, gur and molasses are important. The tobacco industry is wide spread and provides employment to large number of persons. In bidi production, the old districts of sambalpur, Sundergarh, Bolangir, Keonjhar ,Cuttack and Balasore are important. Although Orissa has a large cattle population, it imports leather goods .The principal centres of leather products are Baudh, Bhanjanagar, Bolangir and Keonjhar. Modern tanneries have been set up at Cuttack and Khariar Road. This industry is run primarily on family lines, the 'Mochis ' and 'Chamars' being the two castes engaged in it.

Oil pressing is a traditional occupation run on caste and family line. Mustard, groundnut, castor and til seeds are the principal raw materials used.Some villages specialize in brass products, but owing to competition from the large manufacturing concerns, especially those manufacturing aluminium utensils, this cottage industry is decaying. The high price of brass is another handicap.