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Agriculture in Orissa

Agriculture, Farmers in field As an agrarian economy, Orissa employs around 73% of it’s population in farming who contribute around 30% to the Net State Domestic Product. Of the total land area, around 40% that translates to roughly around 87.46 lakh hectares are brought to agriculture every year and about 18.79 lakh hectare of this cropped area is irrigated. Thus a major portion of the farm land depends on rain for water feeding the crop. Also the area under agriculture is comparatively more in the coastal districts of Orissa i.e. Balasore, Bhadrak, Cuttack, Ganjam, Jajpur, Jagatasinghpur, Kendrapara, Khurda, Nayagarh, Puri etc. Incidentally these are also the regions of the state which fare better in the literacy rate index.

The major crops are rice, pulses, oil seeds, jute, coconut and turmeric. The crops like tea, cotton, groundnut and rubber are of great economic importance in other parts. Orissa contributes one tenth of the total rice produced in the country. Other important food grains include pulses like gram, tur and arhar and Oilseeds like groundnut, mustard and castor oil. Apart from food grains various cash crops are also cultivated in the state. These include Jute, mesta, sugarcane, tobacco, rubber, tea, coffee and turmeric. These are cultivated across different geographical areas of Orissa. Orissa stands fourth in the production of jute in the country after West Bengal , Bihar and Assam. Rice and jute, compete with each other as they require almost similar soil and climatic conditions. Cultivation of jute is primarily confined to the coastal plains of Cuttack, Balasore and Puri districts.

Mentioned below is a list showing the regions where different crops are produced in Orissa.

Foodgrains

 

Rice

Cuttack, Sambalpur, Puri, Ganjam, Baleshwar, Koraput, Kendujhar and Kalahandi.

Pulses (Gram Tur & Arhar)

Cuttack, Puri, Kalahandi, Koraput, Dhenkanal, Balangir and Sambalpur.

Oilseed(Sesameum, groundnut, mustard, castor and linseed)

Cuttack, Koraput, Kalahandi, Bolangir, Sambalpur, Dhenkanal and Ganjam

Cash Crops

 

Jute

Plains of Cuttack, Balasore and Puri districts.

Mesta

Cuttack, Ganjam, Balangir and Koraput

Sugarcane

Cuttack, Sambalpur, Balangir, Kalahandi and Puri districts

Tobacco

Koraput

Cashew

Cuttack,Puri & Ganjam District

Rubber Plantations

Slopes of Eastern Ghats, Mayurbhanj, Keonjar and Baleshwar.Inland hill areas of Cuttack, Puri, Ganjam and Dhenkanal

Cotton

Koraput, Balangir and Kalahandi

Tea

Eastern Ghats, Kendujhar, mountainous region of Phulbani and Koraput.

Coffee

Forest lands of Eastern Ghats, Koraput, Kalhandi, Malkangiri, Rayagada, G.Udayagiri and Balliguda areas of Kandhamal district.

Total land area covered by different crops

Presented below is a list of the total land area being covered by different crops in Orissa. The list also proves the importance of cultivation staple crop over the cash crops in Orissa.

  • Paddy 77.7%
  • Pulses 10.9%
  • Oil seeds 4.9%
  • Fibre crop 1.3%
  • Other cash crops 2.1%
  • Food crops 289.66 thousand .ha
  • Vegetables 621.98 thousand .ha
  • Total production 7604.36 MT
  • Oil seeds (2002-2003) 1.15 lakh MT
  • Rice (2002-2003) 32.44 lakh MT
  • Total cereal (2002-2003) 33.50 lakh MT
  • Pulses 2.05lakh MT
  • Total area of degraded land 61.21 lakh ha
  • Watershed project in operation 1860 nos

Horticulture in Orissa

Mango Plantation,HorticultureHorticulture also plays an important role in the agrarian life of the people of Orissa.Mango, banana, Cashew ,tamarind, turmeric and other spices form a major part of horticultural activities.

Land under Horticulture

Plantation Area Covered

  • Mango plantation: (2006-2007) 14,045 hact
  • Cashew plantation: (2006-2007) 4703 hact
  • Banana cultivation: (2006-2007) 1340 hact
  • Land under commercial floriculture 1865 hact
  • Land under cultivation of spices 520 hact
  • Cultivation of organic ginger and turmeric 100 hact
  • Foodgrains Rice Cuttack, Sambalpur, Puri, Ganjam, Baleshwar, Koraput, Kendujhar and Kalahandi. Pulses (Gram Tur & Arhar) Cuttack, Puri, Kalahandi, Koraput, Dhenkanal, Balangir and Sambalpur. Oilseed(Sesameum, groundnut, mustard, castor and linseed) Cuttack, Koraput, Kalahandi, Bolangir, Sambalpur, Dhenkanal and Ganjam Cash Crops Jute Plains of Cuttack, Balasore and Puri districts. Mesta Cuttack, Ganjam, Balangir and Koraput Sugarcane Cuttack, Sambalpur, Balangir, Kalahandi and Puri districts Tobacco Koraput Cashew Cuttack,Puri & Ganjam District Rubber Plantations Slopes of Eastern Ghats, Mayurbhanj, Keonjar and Baleshwar.Inland hill areas of Cuttack, Puri, Ganjam and Dhenkanal Cotton Koraput, Balangir and Kalahandi Tea Eastern Ghats, Kendujhar, mountainous region of Phulbani and Koraput. Coffee Forest lands of Eastern Ghats, Koraput, Kalhandi, Malkangiri, Rayagada, G.Udayagiri and Balliguda areas of Kandhamal district.