One of the developed districts of Western Orissa , Baragarh came into existence on April 1st 1993, carved out of the erstwhile Sambalpur district. Bargarh District has an area of 5832 km, and a population of 1,345,601, with a density of 231 persons per km. The region is properly irrigated by the Hirakud dam project, making the northern part of the district rich in agriculture. The district is famous for centuries old handloom industry and manufacture of its a trade-mark Sambalpuri Saree. Another cultural festivity that gives Bargarh its identity is the Dhanuyatra.
The Bargarh district lies between at 21°20'N 83°37'E / 21.33°N 83.62°E / 21.33, covering an area of 5837 Sq.Kms . It is bounded on the north by the State of Chhatisgarh and on the east by the district of Sambalpur, on to its south, lay the district of Balangir and Sonepur and on the west the district of Nuapada.
Bargarh district can be divided into three natural divisions
Most part of the Bargarh district is formed of an open fertile plain that is drained by two tributaries of the Mahanadi ; The Danta and Jira. However unlike regular plain lands, the Bargarh plain is not a flat alluvial structure but an expanse of undulating country sloping down from the Barapahar hills in the north, to the Mahanadi valley in the east.This undulating character affords excellent scope for irrigation reservoir. To the north of this plain runs the Barapahar range of hills and to the south-west lie the valley of river Ong (Ang). The soil is a mixture of sand and gravel as well as of clay which is good for rice cultivation.This tract is nowhere bare of vegetation and the villages are found embowered with mango groves.
The Borasambar (Padampur) tract lies to the south-west of the Bargarh plain. It is bounded by the high hills on the north and south and the intervening plain is drained by river Ong (Ang).
Ambabhona and Lakhanpur
The Ambabhona and Lakhanpur area is cut off from the rest of Bargarh plain by a long chain hill range called the the Barapahar hills.It runs south-west for a distance of nearly 48 Km. Ambabhona is a fairly level tract sloping down from the hills to the river Mahanadi and is under close cultivation. Lakhanpur is a wide valley surrounded by forest clad hills and is also closely cultivated.
Natural Resources and Climate
Summers in Bargarh begin from February till second week of June and are very hot and dry. The onset of South – west monsoon bring in rains in the region and Rainfalls are well distributed. The winter season commences from November and lasts till the end of February are pleasant and most enjoyable.
The district of Orissa is covered by an extensive chain of hills. The Barapahar (literaly, 12 hills) is the main hill range covering an area over 777 Sq.Km. At a height of 2,267 feet (691.1 m.),Debrigarh is the highest of the ranges.It is one of the best hill sites in the district suitable for health resort.
The second group of hills is the Gandhamardhan range runs along the southern boundary of the ex-Zamindari of Borasambar, separating it from Bolangir district. The hill range rises to 2,000-3,000 feet (629.60 m to 914.40m) in height and reaches its highest point (3,234 feet or 985.72m) in the peak of Nrushinghanath, one of the picturesque places in the district.
Another range shoots off to the west of Nrushinghanath running first north-south and then north-east near Jagdalpur, where it is broken by the Ong (Ang) river. Another range runs eastward to Tal and then to the north-east forming the boundary between the district and Raipur of Chhatisgarh.
Rivers like Jira, Jhaun and Ang form a network of tributaries that join the Mahanadi in the extreme south of the district.Apart from these, there are many natural springs at the foot of Gandhamardhan hills of Padampur subdivision forming streams flowing in cascades down the steep hill side. The waterfalls are called Kapil dhar, Bhim dhar and Chal dhar, which are considered sacred by the natives.