Orissa News

Rangabhanja tried to become independent challenging the authority of the Bhaumas. During his time Janamejya, the Somavamsi king of South Kosala, invaded Khinjali Mandal. Ranabhanja was defeated and killed in the battle and the Sonapur and Boudh-Phulbani regions were occupied by the Somavamsis. Thereafter the Bhanjas shifted their rule to Ganjam region where they organized the new Khinjali Mandala with Vanjulvaka as capital.

The first king of the house of Vanjulvaka was Nettabhanja II alias Kalyankalasa who was a son of Ranabhanja. He was succeeded by the nephew Silabhanja II alias Tribhuvana Kalasa. After him his son Vidhyadharabhanja became the ruler of Vanjulvaka. He was also known as Amogha Kalasa and sometimes as Dharma Kalasa. His queen was Trikalinga Mahadevi who was probably a Somavamsi princess. He was succeeded by his son Nettabhanja III also known as Kalyan Kalasa and Prithvi Kalasa. He was succeeded by his nephew Satrubhanja II alias Tribhubana Kalasa in 934 A.D. The last known Bhanja ruler of Vanjulvaka was Bettabhanja IV alias Tribhuvana Kalasa whose charter is dated to 949 A.D. The Bhanja rulers of Vanjulvaka had no significant role and very little is known about the history of this branch.

Bhanjas of Khijjinga Mandala

This Mandala comprised roughly the modern Mayurbhanj and part of Keonjhar districts. The capital was at Khijjinga Kotta ,today’s Khiching in Mayurbhanj. The earliest known ruler of this Mandala was Kottabhanja who probably established Kijjinga Kotta. He was succeeded by his son Digbhanja also known as Durjayabhanja and Ranabhanja who succeeded him one after the other. He was a devout worshipper of Siva and donated grants to Brahmins for propagation of Saivism. He was succeeded by his son Prithvibhanja alias Satrubhanja who established himself as a powerful ruler and was inclined to Sakti worship. He was succeeded by his younger brother Rajabhanja who is known to have patronized Buddhism. It was during his time that Khijjinga Kotta was occupied by the Somavamsis of South Kosala.

The Sulkis of Kodala Mandala

Kodalaka Mandal roughly comprised the modern district of Dhenkanal. The capital town was Kodalaka identified with the modern village Kualo. The earliest known Sulki ruler was Kanchanastambha who was succeeded by his son Kalahastambha. This king defeated a chief named Dhenkata and assumed the title Vikramaditya. His son and successor was Ranastambha ,a feudatory chief of the Bhauma King Subhakaradeva III. He was succeeded by his son Jayasthambha who was an ambitious ruler. He assumed the title Maharajadhiraja and probably challenged the authority of the Bhaumas. His son and successor Kulastambha II was the last known ruler of this dynasty. It was during his rule that the Bhaumas occupied Kodalaka Mandala and drove away the Sulkis and Kodalaka Mandala was divided into two political units, namely, Yamagartta Mandala and Airavatta Mandala.allowing the Tunga and the Nandodbhava families to rule over Yamagartta Mandala and Airavatta Mandala respectively.

Tungas of Yamagartta Mandala

The Mandala comprised the northern part of modern Dhenkanal district. The capital was Yamagartta identified with the modern village Jamda. The earliest known ruler of Yamagartta Mandala was Jayasimha who assumed the administration of this Mandala before the rule of the Tunga family. The earliest known Tunga ruler was Khadaga Tunga who came from Rohitagiri identified with Rotasgarh in Bihar. He was succeeded by his son Vinita Tunga who was a feudatory of the Bhauma King Sivakaradeva III. He was a devotee of Siva but extended his patronage to both Buddhism and Vaishnavism.

The next Tunga ruler was Solana Tunga and after him his son Gayada Tunga became the ruler of Yamagartta Mandala. He appears to be a powerful ruler and patronized Bhrahminical culture.

The Nandodbhavas of Airavatta Mandala

The Nandodbhava family ruled over Airavatta Mandala at the time the Tungas were ruling in Yamagartta Mandala. The capital of Airavatta Mandala was at Jayapura identified with the village of the same name in the south of Dhenkanal district. Airavatta Mandala expanded to a territory comprising parts of southern Dhenkanal, portions of western cuttack and the entire Nayagarh region.

Jayananda the first known ruler of this family founded Jayapura Jayananda was succeeded by his son Paramananda. After him his son Sivananda and then the latter’s son Devananda I became the ruler of Airavatta Mandala. There is not much historical data available on these four kings except their name.

Devananda I was succeeded by his son Devananda II also known as Vilasa Tunga. He was a powerful king and owed nominal allegiance to the Bhaumas. He was a feudatory ruler under the Bhauma monarch Dandi Mahadevi. He was succeeded by his brother who is known to be a devout Buddhist and was known as Paramasougata. The Somavamsis occupied Airavatta Mandala in about 968 A.D. after which this Mandala formed a part of Odradesa under the Somavamsis.

The Mayuras of Banei Mandala

The Mandal roughly comprised the modern Banei sub-division and parts of Panposh subdivision of Sundergarh district. The Mayuras were a branch of the Maurya family. They are known to have emigrated from Chitrakota identified with Chitor in Rajasthan.

The first Mayura king was Udita Varsha who coming from Chitrakuta established the rule of his dynasty in Banei region. His descendent was Teja Varsha who was succeeded by his son Udaya Varsha. This king was a Paramasougata meaning devout Buddhist.