Orissa News

After Dharmaraja II the power of the Sailodbhavas declined. Dharamaraja was succeeded by his son Madhyamaraja II. It was probably during his rule that the Sailodbhavas were driven out of Kangoda by the Bhaumakaras thus, marking an end to their rule.

The Bhaumakaras

The Sailodbhava Kingdom was osccupied by the Bhauma king Unmattasimha alias Sivakaradeva I in 736 A.D. thus marking the beginning of the Bhaumkara dynasty. He had also occupied Kangoda and Svetaka territories. He was a devout Buddhist and is known to have acted towards the promotion of the religion.

He was succeeded by his son Subhakaradeva I who was instrumental in defeating the Gangas of Kalinga .However he suffered a serious setback in the hands of the Rastrakuta king Govinda III.He is known to have actively promoted Buddhism. Records suggest that in the year 795 A.D, he had sent a copy of “Avatansaka” to the Chinese emperor Te-Tsang along with his autographed letter.

Subhakara I was succeeded by his son Sivakaradeva II who was also a Buddhist ruler. His queen Mohini Devi probably built the Mohini temple at Bhubaneswar.

After Sivakara II his brother Santikara I also known as Gayada I came to the throne. During his time the Ganesh Gumpha of Udayagiri in Khandagiri-Udayagiri hill complex was remodeled by a physician named Bhimata, son of Nannata who also built a monastery called Arghyakavarati at Dhauli hill.

Santikara I was succeeded by Subhakaradeva II who was the son of Sivakaradeva II. He ruled for a very short time and was succeeded by his cousin, Subhakara III who proved to be a powerful ruler consolidating his rule over both northern and southern Tosali. He died without any issue at about 845 A.D.

The burden of administration then fell upon the widow queen of Santikara I., Gosvamini Tribhuvana Mahadevi I. She was the first woman ruler of the Bhauma family and had a successful and prosperous rule. After her, Santikara II, her grandson succeeded to the throne.

64 Yogini temples were built by Queen Hira Devi

His queen Hira Mahadevi built the temple of Sixty-four Yoginis at Hirapur on the bank of the Bhargavi. Santikara II was succeeded by his eldest son Subhakaradeva IV also called Kusumahara II. He married Prithvi Mahadevi, the daughter of king Janamejaya of South Kosala. Subhakaradeva IV died childless and was succeeded by his brother Sivakaradeva III alias Lalitahara. Although a follower of Saivism, he patronized Buddhism. He died after a brief rule probably as the victim of court intrigue.

Prithvi Mahadevi who was the widow of Subhakara IV became the ruler thereafter assuming the title of Tribhuvana Mahadevi II. Her brother Jajati I was then the ruler of Kosala and both brother and sister attempted to extend the rule of the Somavamsis of Kosala at the expense of the Bhaumas of Tosali. As the interest of the Bhaumas was threatened by Prithvi Mahadevi she was ousted from power by a coup organized by the ministers and officers of Tosali and the Bhauma throne was occupied by the widow of Sivakara III who declared herself Tribhuvana Mahadevi III. She was a modest and magnanimous lady and was a devout Vaishnava like Prithvi Mahadevi.

After Tribhuvana Mahadevi III her two sons Santikara III and Subhakara V ruled one after the other. The Bhauma rulers after Subhakara V were all women. His wife Gouri Mahadevi succeeded him and ruled for a brief period. She built the Gouri temple at Bhubaneswar. After a brief rule she was succeeded by her daughter Dandi Mahadevi who was a powerful ruler and a good administrator as well. She remained a virgin throughout her life probably due to political reason and died a premature death. She was succeeded by her stepmother Vakula Mahadevi who was a Bhanja princess. After her the Bhauma throne passed to Dharma Mahadevi who was the widow of Santikara III. She was also a Bhanja princess. She was the last Bhauma ruler and after her death the Bhauma territory was occupied by the Somavamsi King Dharmaratha (960 A.D. to 995 A.D.) the grandson of Jajati I.

The Mandala States

Some semi-independent principalities known as the Mandalas developed in between the kingdom of Bhaumas and the Somavamsis owing allegiance to the Bhauma rulers. The ruling dynasties of those Mandalas were

  • The Bhanjas of Khinjali Mandala
  • The Bhanjas of Khijjinga Mandala
  • The Sulkis of Kodalaka Mandala
  • The Tungas of Yamagartta Mandala
  • The Nandodbhavas of Airavatta Mandala
  • The Mayuras of Banei Mandala
  • The Gangas of Svetaka Mandala

The Bhanjas of Khinjali Mandala

The Khinjali Mandala comprised roughly the modern Sonepur subdivision. Its being Dhitipura,the modern Boudh town. The dynasty was founded by s Silabhanja Deva also called Angadi. He was succeeded by his son Satrubhanja who is also known as Gandhata and Nettabhanja. Satrubhanja founded the town of Gandhatapati identified with modern Gandharadi near Boudh After him his son Ranabhanja became the ruler of Khinjali. During his early career he was a devout Vaishnava and later on was inclined to Saivism probably under the influence of his queen Vijaya Mahadevi who was a Kadamva princess. Vijaya Mahadevi built the temple of Vijayasvara Siva in the village Vahirvada on the bank of the Mahanadi. King Rangabhanja built the twin temples of Sidheswara Siva and Nilamadhava Vishnu at Gandhtapati (Gandharadi).