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Soon after the war of Vijaynagar, the Sultan of Golkonda,Sultan Quli Qutab invaded the southern territory of Orissa and got initial victory, but subsequently he was defeated and driven out by 1525. He invaded Orissa for a second time in 1531 and occupied Kondapalli. The war with Golkonda continued even after the death of Prataprudradeva in 1533 A.D., when Govinda Bidyadhar came to the throne.

Prataprudradeva succeeded in retaining his kingdom from the Ganges to the Krishna inspite of military defeats. During his rule Orissa made great advancement in the sphere of religion and culture. Sri Chaitanya who came to Orissa in 1510 preached the gospel of Vaishnavism and had a great impact on the religion and culture of Orissa.

Bhoi Dynasty

Govinda Bidyadhar: After the death of Prataprudradeva his two sons named Kaluadeva (Ramachandradeva) and Kakharuadeva (Purushottamdeva) succeeded one after the other and ruled for less than two years. Both the brothers fell victim to the conspiracy of the minister Govinda Bidyadhar who occupied the throne in 1534 A.D. and founded the rule of the Bhoi dynasty.

In 1540 A.D. the Sultan of Golkonda occupied Rajmahendri.While Govinda Bidyadhar was busy in fighting with the intruders, his nephew Raghubhanja Chhotray and Valmiki Srichandan revolted against him and occupied Cuttack. He was thus forced to make a treaty with the Sultan that made the river Godavari as the boundary between Golkonda and Orissa. He returned to his capital and defeated his nephew who fled away to Bengal. Govinda Bidyadhar died in 1549 at Dashasvamedha Ghat of the Baitarani river.

He was succeeded by his son Chakrapratap. He was a weak and cruel ruler and was very unpopular among the people. He died in 1557 A.D. He was probably murdered by his son Narasimha Jena who succeeded him and ruled for about a year. He was murdered by Mukunda Harichandan who placed Raghuram Jena, a son of Chakrapratap, on the throne and himself became the virtual ruler. Mukunda Harichandan captured the Minister Janardan Bidyadhar by an intrigue and impriosoned him in the Barabati fort where he died subsequently. Mukunda Harichandan declared himself as the ruler of Orissa in 1559 A.D.

Mukundadeva Harichandan Mukundadeva belonged to the Chalukya family. He came to the throne in 1559 by treachery and blood-shed. In 1560 Sultan Ghiyasuddin Jallal Shah of Bengal invaded Orissa and marched up to Jajpur. Mukundadeva defeated him and drove him out of Orissa.

About that time one Afghan Chief named Suleiman Karrani occupied Bengal and became the Sultan. His rival Ibrahim fled to Orissa and got shelter under the protection of Mukundadeva.Around the same time Akbar who was planning an invasion into Bengal, made an alliance with Mukundadeva. Mukundadeva received the Mughal ambassador and sent his own emissary to the Mughal court.

This made Mukundadeva a dead enemy of Suleiman Karrani, the Sultan of Bengal. In 1567 when Akbar was busy in the invasion of Chitor, Sultan Karrani invaded Orissa. The Mughal Governor of Bihar, Munim Khan became indifferent and Mukundadeva resisted the invasion of Bengal singlehanded. He was defeated by the Sultan and took shelter in the fort of Kotsima, where Sultan Karrani besieged him. In the meantime, Bayazid, the son of the Sultan, led his army to Cuttack. At this point, Ramachandra Bhanja, the feudatory of Sarangagarh, rose in rebellion. Mukundadeva made a treaty with Suleiman Karrani and marched against Ramachandra Bhanja. A battle took place in Gohiri Tikiri near Jajpur where Mukundadeva lost his life at the hands of Ramachandra Bhanja. After that Ramachandra was defeated and killed by Bayazid and Orissa passed to the hands of the Afghans of Bengal in 1568 A.D.